Monthly Archives: January 2017

Yoruba Culture and the Left Hand

Yoruba culture and left hand

The Yoruba people are one of the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria. They inhabit the south western part of the country and are the second most populated of the three major Nigerian ethnic groups, followed by the Igbos of eastern Nigeria. The Yoruba people are well known for their strong desire for peace and unity at home and in diaspora. They are also known for their rich cultures and traditions which include: lifestyle, religions, dressings, beliefs and so on. The Yorubas, also called Omo Odua (offspring of Oduduwa- the progenitor of the Yoruba tribe), cherish every aspect of their cultures and traditions; none is being overlooked or handled with less importance and care because they practice them daily.

Ethics is a vital aspect of the Yoruba culture. The Yoruba attach great importance to ethical significance because they believe that this aspect of their culture is highly essential to every individual’s life. They also believe that it will be easy for someone with good ethics to succeed in life and the other way round for the one who lacks it. Therefore, the Yoruba people use all means to teach their children good manners and morals and how to use them in the society. Some of the means they use are: storytelling, songs, poetry, oral lecturing and so on. Continue reading Yoruba Culture and the Left Hand


Nigerian Vice Presidents From 1966 Till Date

Yemi Osinbajo

Vice President  | President/Head of State | Type of Government

* Babafemi Ogundipe | Aguiyi Ironsi | Military

* J. E. A Wey | Yakubu Gowon | Military

* Olusegun Obasanjo | Murtala Mohammed | Military

* Shehu Musa Yar’dua | Olusegun Obasanjo | Military

* Alex Ekwueme | Shehu Shagari | Democratic

* Tunde Idiagbon | Muhammadu Buhari | Military

* Ebitu Ukiwe | Ibrahim Babangida | Military

* Augustu Aikhomu | Ibrahim Babangida | Military

* Oladipo Diya | Sani Abacha | Military

* Mike Akhigbe | Abdulsalam Abubakar | Military

* Atiku Abubakar | Olusegun Obasanjo| Democratic

* Goodluck Ebele Jonathan | Umaru Musa Yar’Adua | Democratic

* Alh. M. Namadi Sambo | Goodluck Jonathan | Democratic

* Alh. M. Namadi Sambo | Goodluck Jonathan | Democratic

* Yemi Osinbajo | Muhammadu Buhari | Democratic

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Embassies in Nigeria and their Locations

Nigeria coat of arms

Embassy of Algeria
Address: Plot 230, Etim Inyang Crescent, Victoria Island Extension, Lagos
Phone: +234 1 2624017, 2611570; Fax: +234 1 2624017

Embassy of The People’s Republic of Angola,
Address: 5, Kasumu Ekemode Street, Victoria Island, P.O. Box 50437, Falomo, Ikoyi, Lagos
Phone: +234 1 2611135, 2611702

Embassy of The Argentine Republic
Address: 15A, Ruxton Road, Ikoyi, P.O. Box 51940, Lagos
Phone: +234 1 2690093 2690117; Fax: +234 1 2690118

Australian High Commission
Address: 2, Ozumba Mbadiwe Avenue, Victoria Island, Lagos. Phone: +234 1 2613124 2618875; Fax: +234 1 2618703
Address: ALD Building, Plot 665 Vaal Street, Off IBB Way, Maitama, Abuja Phone: +234 9 5230753-5; Fax: +234 9 5239931

Embassy of Austria,
Address: FABAC Centre, 3B Ligali Ayorinde Avenue, Victoria Island, P.O. Box 1914, Lagos
Phone: +234 1 2616081 2616286; Fax: +234 1 2617639 Continue reading Embassies in Nigeria and their Locations

Concepts of Government- Power And Authority

Political Power and Authority


What is power?
Power is defined as the ability to affect someone’s behaviour through some sanctions.
(According to C. C Dibie’s Essential Government, “Power is the capacity to affect another’s behaviour by the threat of sanction. The sanctions may be negative or positive. Thus, a political leader may have the ability to control the actions of others by promising those who support him wealth or honours, or he may threaten to deny such rewards to those who oppose him. However, sanctions are used if there is non-compliance”.)

Continue reading Concepts of Government- Power And Authority

Pre-Colonial Political Administration of the Benin Empire

Pre-colonial administration of the Benin empire

The Edos of Benin inhabit the south western part of modern day Nigeria and are close neighbors of the Yorubas with whom they claim the same origin. The Benin pre-colonial system of government, like the Yorubas was monarchical. The Oba (a title used for the king of Benin) was the theoretical and political leader of the empire with absolute authority no one dares to challenge. Unlike a Yoruba king, he was not bounded by the constitution or laws of the land. He solely wielded the legislative, executive and judiciary powers of the empire. Howbeit, he was assisted in the administering the empire by a many councils and officials. The highest of the councils were the Uzama who advised the King on important matters concerning the affairs of the empire. But unlike a Yoruba king, he was not subjected to their advice and decisions; he could heed to them and dispose them at will. Besides advising the King, the Uzama were also saddled with the responsibility of crowning a new king (the eldest surviving son of the previous king).

Apart from the Uzama, there were a number of officials who helped the Oba in administering the empire. These included officials like ‘Unwagwe’ and ‘Eribo’ who were in charge of the empire’s trade. They monitored the flow of goods in the empire and advice the king on how the economy of the empire can be improved. There were also the gold and brass-smiths that took care of the empire’s craft and industry. Other notable and important officials were the ‘Ezomo’, ‘Ebohon’, ‘Iyasere’ and the ‘Ologbosere’, the chief priest. All these officials had specific roles they played in the administration of the empire.

Furthermore, the Benin Empire was divided into two classes; they were the nobles and the commoners. Traditional chiefs and administrative officials were mostly chosen from the noble class. These included: the ‘Iwebo’ who were in charge of the regalia; the ‘Ibiwe’ who supervised the king’s harem and the ‘Iwagwe’ who provided the king with personal attendants. On the other hand, the commoners were not involved in the administration of the empire. Their main concern was providing food for their communities. Each of the commoners owns a piece of land he/she cultivated. They were also hired by the nobles to work on their farms for a period of time in return for money, a piece of land or sometimes cancellation of debts.



  • Ola Abiola; A Textbook of West African History; 3rd ed.; Ado-Ekiti; Omolayo Standard Press & Bookshops co. (Nig.) Ltd.; 1984

The Osogbo War of 1840

Osogbo map

After the Fulanis systematically captured and made Ilorin their territory, they sacked the old Oyo Empire in 1835/1636. They were still not satisfied with their victory; they wished to extend their rule deep into the heart of Yoruba land. Thus in 1840, they set to capture Osogbo, a Yoruba town. The Fulanis, under the command of Ali, the Hausa balogun of Ilorin, laid siege on Osogbo. When the king of Osogbo realized that the Ilorins were too strong for the Osogbo army, he summoned the Ibadans for help. Ibadan immediately sent some auxiliaries to Osogbo under the command of Obele alias Mobitan, and Alade Abimpagun. As this force could not stop the Ilorins, another contingent was sent to Osogbo under a more experienced leader. But still the Ilorins won every battle and gained more ground. Continue reading The Osogbo War of 1840

The Mugbamugba War- Second Attempt of a Failed Expulsion

Fulani Warriors

After Are-Ona-Kakanfo Afonja was murdered and Ilorin was seized by the Fulani Jamma, Alimi (the son of Abdul Salam) became the first Fulani ruler of Ilorin not with the title of Oba or Baale but Emir which solidifies that the total control of Ilorin, a Yoruba town had gone to the Fuanis. In a bid to restore the control of Ilorin in the hands of the Yorubas, Toyeje, the Baale of Ogbomoso and the new Are-Ona-Kakanfo, led an attack on Ilorin to expel the Fulanis, but unfortunately, he failed drastically. After sometime, between the months of March and April (when locus fruit i.e Igba was ripe for harvest), another attempt was made by the Yorubas to chase the intruding Fulanis out of Ilorin but failed again. Continue reading The Mugbamugba War- Second Attempt of a Failed Expulsion

List of Radio Stations in Lagos State (With Frequencies)

Radio Stations in Nigeria

Below is the list of radio stations in Lagos state with frequencies and locations. [Updates are welcomed, kindly add new radio station(s) in the comment box below]

* 88.9 – Brilla FM – Sports Broadcast only

* 89.7 – Eko FM, Ikeja

* 90.9 – Top Radio FM

* 92.3 – Inspiration FM

* 93.7 – Rhythm FM

* 95.1 – Wazobia FM

* 92.9 – Bond FM

* 95.7 – LASU Radio (Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos) Continue reading List of Radio Stations in Lagos State (With Frequencies)

Definition, Characteristics and Types of Sovereignty

Government Studies on OldNaija

Definition of Sovereignty

What is Sovereignty?
Sovereignty is derived from the Latin word “Superanus” which means supreme or paramount.

Sovereignty is the supreme authority and power of a state to make and enforce laws/policies within its area of jurisdiction. The state exercise its power and authority in any way it can [either De facto or De Jure (they will be explained below)] without any means of external interference or control. The French philosopher, Jean Bodin (1530-1590), propounded the idea of sovereignty his publication of “The Republic” in 1576.


Continue reading Definition, Characteristics and Types of Sovereignty